The Harbor Police Department is divided into several divisions to carry out its law enforcement activities. Each division focuses on protecting the Port of New Orleans gateway to ensure economic prosperity by maximizing the flow of international trade and commerce within the three parish jurisdiction.

The Patrol Division focuses on preventive patrol duties, crime prevention, and coordinating with businesses and tenants to maintain good public relations. They respond to calls for service, investigate and report crimes, administer aid to the injured, make arrests, provide testimony in court cases, and regulate certain businesses or activities as required.

The Marine Division enforces laws, provides security and escorts for vessels in the Port of New Orleans, assists other maritime enforcement agencies, and conducts rescue and recovery efforts.

The Training Division operates the Harbor Police Academy, ensuring officers are educated on relevant laws and meet the highest standards of professionalism.

The Criminal Investigation Division investigates crimes, files cases with the district attorney's office, performs VIP and dignitary escorts, collects evidence, and conducts background checks.

Finally, the Bicycle Patrol Division, established in 2017, patrols a designated area on state-of-the-art bikes equipped with lights, sirens, and PA systems to enhance safety in the busy Henderson to Governor Nicholls region.